Stephen Bao

Lecturer, Engineering

Fields: Ergonomics, industrial engineering, occupational biomechanics
Ph.D. Industrial engineering, Lulea University of Technology, Sweden; M.S. Medicine (orthopedics biomechanics), Shanghai Second Medical School, China; B.S. Mechanical engineering (industrial ergonomics), Shanghai Jiaotong University, China

5000 Abbey Way SE
Lacey, WA 98503


Dr. Bao earned his Ph.D. in Industrial Ergonomics from Lulea University of Technology, Sweden and M.S. in Medicine (Orthopedics biomechanics) from Shanghai Second Medical School, and B.S. in Mechanical Engineering from Shanghai Jiaotong University. He is a certified professional ergonomist in USA (CPE) and Canada (CCPE). He is a senior ergonomics researcher with Washington State Department of Labor and Industries, and an affiliated Associate Professor at University of Washington. As a researcher, he has performed numerous projects primarily in real workplaces to study relationships between workplace factors and musculoskeletal disorders, develop job assessment tools, and evaluate workplace ergonomics interventions. With an engineering background, Stephen promotes solutions that can be integrated in industrial processes to enhance productivity and improve efficiency. He has done many ergonomics consultations with a wide range of industries. As a seasoned instructor, Stephen has taught many targeted audiences including ergonomists, health and safety specialists, engineers, production workers, and university students. He teaches ergonomics, industrial engineering and occupational biomechanics to help students master the skills to improve production systems with the consideration of human in the systems.

Select publications

  • Bao, S., Kapellusch, J., Merryweather, A., Thiese, M., Garg, A., Hegmann, K. & Silverstein, B., 2015. Relationships between job organizational factors, biomechanical and psychosocial exposures. Ergonomics, 59 (2) 179-194.
  • Bao, S.S., Kapellusch, J.M., Garg, A., Silverstein, B.A., Harris-Adamson, C., Burt, S.E., Dale, A.M., Evanoff, B.A., Gerr, F.E., Hegmann, K.T., Merlino, L.A., Thiese, M.S. & Rempel, D.M., 2015. Developing a pooled job physical exposure data set from multiple independent studies: An example of a consortium study of carpal tunnel syndrome. Occup Environ Med, 72 (2), 130-7 .
  • Bao, S., Silverstein, B. & Stewart, K., 2013. Evaluation of an ergonomics intervention among Nicaraguan coffee harvesting workers. Ergonomics, 56 (2), 166-81.
  • Bao, S., Howard, N., Spielholz, P., Silverstein, B., and Polissar, N. (2011) Comparison of two different methods for performing combination analysis of force and posture risk factors in an epidemiological study. Scand J Work Environ Health, 37(6): 512-524.
  • Bao, S., Howard, N., Spielholz, P., Silverstein, B. (2010) Inter-observer reliability of forceful exertion analysis based on video-recordings. Ergonomics, 53 (9): 1129-1139.
  • Bao, S., Spielholz, P., Howard, N., Silverstein, B. (2009) Force measurement in field ergonomics research and application, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 39: 330-340.
  • Bao, S. (2015) Mechanical Stress, In: Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Occupational Neurology, eds: M. Lotti, M. Bleecker, Elsevier B. V., Chapter 20, pp. 367 to 396.
  • Bao. S., Silverstein, B., Howard, N., Spielholz, P. (2006) The Washington State SHARP Approach to Exposure Assessment Methods in Epidemiological Studies of Upper Extremity Musculoskeletal Disorders, In: The Occupational Ergonomics Handbook: Fundamentals and Assessment Tools for Occupational Ergonomics, eds: W.S. Marras and W. Karwowski, CRC Press, Chapter 44, pp. 1 to 22.

Professional certifications

  • Canadian Certified Professional Ergonomist (CCPE), Canadian College for the Certification of Professional Ergonomists, Canada, 1999 - present
  • Certified Professional Ergonomist (CPE), Board of Certification in Professional Ergonomics, USA, 1999 - present